Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in EcuadorEl marketing de inuencias y su efecto en la decisión de compra de los clientes en el sector de la moda y la belleza en Ecuador doxa.comunicación | nº 38, pp. 207-226 | 207 January-June of 2024ISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978How to cite this article: González Marín, N. C.; Guiracocha Arriciaga, R. V.; Cueva Estrada, J. and Sumba, N. (2024). Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in Ecuador. Doxa Comunicación, 38, pp. 207-226.https://doi.org/10.31921/doxacom.n38a1993Nivia Carolina González Marín. Bachelor’s Degree in Graphic Design. Master’s in Business Administration with a specialisation in Project Management from Universidad Politécnica Salesiana. University Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador[email protected]ORCID: 0009-0007-5242-0057Rosa Virginia Guiracocha Arriciaga. Bachelor’s Degree in Accounting and Auditing. Master’s in Business Administration with a major in Project Management from Universidad Politécnica Salesiana. University Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador[email protected]ORCID: 0009-0006-2409-1658Jorge Cueva Estrada. Researcher and professor at Universidad Politécnica Salesiana. He has published more than 30 articles in scientic journals of international prestige. Apart from his academic activities, he is also editor-in-chief of the journal Retos en Ecuador, as well as a member of the following research groups: Grupo de Investigación Socio-Económica y Empresarial (GISEE); Grupo de Innovación Educativa Mejorando las Prácticas Áulicas (GIE-MPA); and Grupo de Investigación en Enseñanza –Aprendizaje de Las Ciencias Para la Ingeniería (GIEACI). His research study entitled “Inuencer marketing and its impact on the buying behaviour of millennial consumers” was lauded as the best article in the Issue 25 of the Colombian journal Suma de Negocios. He also holds a Master’s Degree in Business Administration from Salesiana Polytechnic University, and is currently pursuing a PhD at Rey Juan Carlos University in Spain as well. His main lines of research include Marketing, Administration, Management, Technology, and Education.University Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador[email protected]University Rey Juan Carlos, Spain[email protected] ORCID: 0000-0002-3055-1060is content is published under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License. International License CC BY-NC 4.0

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208 | nº 38, pp. 207-226 | January-June of 2024Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in EcuadorISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978doxa.comunicaciónNicolas Sumba. Currently working toward a PhD in social and legal science at Universidad Rey Juan, Spain. He also holds a Master’s Degree in Business Administration and is a full-time lecturer and researcher at Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Guayaquil Campus, Ecuador. He has been involved in various teaching endeavours, in addition to several research projects with positive results. Mr. Sumba is also the author of several publications related to the role of ICT in education, marketing, and educational inclusion. He has coordinated several social projects in connection with his studies in business administration, and is currently assistant editor of RETOS, a journal of administrative and economic science. He is also a member of the following research groups: Grupo de Investigación Socioeconómica y Empresarial (GISEE); Grupo de Innovación Educativa Mejorando las Prácticas Áulicas (GIE-MPA); and Grupo de Innovación Educativa Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones en el proceso de enseñanza – aprendizaje (GIE-TICEA)University Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador[email protected]University Rey Juan Carlos, Spain[email protected] ORCID: 0000-0001-7163-4252Received: 12/05/2023 - Accepted: 07/09/2023 - Early access: 10/10/2023 - Published: 01/01/2024Recibido: 12/05/2023 - Aceptado: 07/09/2023- En edición: 10/10/2023 - Publicado: 01/01/2024Abstract:e changing context in which companies develop their business activity has compelled them to modify their communication strategy, and this is where inuencer marketing and its standard bearer, the inuencer, come into play. e aim of this study is to analyse the impact of inuencer marketing on the purchase decisions of customers in the fashion and beauty sector, for which a non-experimental design with a correlational scope was carried out. A questionnaire was administered to 402 fashion product consumers and 393 beauty product users. A strong positive correlation (0.863), as well as an average positive correlation (0.738), between this type of marketing and the consumer’s decision to purchase fashion and beauty products, respectively, indicates that the proper use of this type of marketing can provide companies with an important tool for inducing the purchase of their products.Keywords:Beauty; purchase decision; inuencer; inuencer marketing; fashion.Resumen:El contexto cambiante en que las empresas desarrollan sus negocios las ha obligado a modicar también su estrategia comunicacional, es aquí, donde el marketing de inuencias y su abanderado, el inuencer, en-tran en escena. El objetivo del estudio es analizar el efecto del marketing de inuencias en la decisión de compra de los clientes en el sector de la moda y la belleza, para ello se realizó un diseño no experimental y de alcance correlacional. Se aplicó un cuestionario a 402 consumidores de productos de moda y 393 consumidores de productos de belleza. La correlación positiva fuerte (0.863) y correlación positiva media (0.738) hallada entre esta vertiente del marketing y la decisión de compra del consumidor de productos de moda y belleza respectivamente, permite indicar que una correcta aplicación de este tipo de marketing permite a las empresas dotarse de una herramienta importante para motivar la compra de sus productos.Palabras clave: Belleza; decisión de compra; inuencer; marketing de inuencias; moda.1. Introductione eects of globalisation, together with advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have aected all activity carried out by various societies on a global scale. Moreover, companies are not exempt from these eects, as they compete ercely among themselves to gain market share at the national and international levels. To do so, they use the benets oered by ICT (Peñael and Lopez, 2012; Ramos 2022; González, Ipaz Erazo and Turriago, 2022). Within the business

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doxa.comunicación | nº 38, pp. 207-226 January-June of 2024Nivia Carolina González Marín, Rosa Virginia Guiracocha Arriciaga, Jorge Cueva Estrada and Nicolas SumbaISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978| 209environment, one of the most widely used strategies is marketing in all of its aspects, including the following: content, social, digital, green, inuencer marketing (IM), and others. ese marketing strategies can be used in diverse economic sectors, and they currently depend mostly on the internet and ICT, which is conrmed by Armstrong and Kotler (2012), who assert that companies need to consider new ways of oering value to their customers using digital media.Emerging technology and the internet are factors that have led to the development and reinforcement of the digital ecosystem, in which individuals as well as companies and organisations, both public and private, are immersed (Sumba, Cueva and López, 2018; Rodas-Tobar et al., 2022; Spitsina, Kretinin and Spitsin, 2022). is ecosystem is the place where digital customers have appeared. Moreover, these consumers have ubiquitous access to information such as prices, product features, ratings, and other data obtained through digital mobile devices, while in constant interaction with other members of the digital community (Delgado, 2016; Guaña, Quinatoa and Pérez, 2017; Guerra et al. 2021).is last point is where social networks come into play and assume a key role, as these platforms allow interaction and communication among individuals where virtual communities are created. Furthermore, not only are virtual consumers represented, but also companies with their diverse marketing strategies, some of which are based on inuencer marketing (IM). is new type of relationship between customers and companies is having a signicant impact on the buying behaviour of consumers, who are moving to the online environment to carry out their purchases. Given this situation, the following research question is posed: Are inuencer marketing strategies eective in persuading fashion and beauty customers in Ecuador to make a decision to purchase (PD)?1.1. Virtual communitiesVirtual communities use social networks for communication and interaction, as these digital platforms allow individuals to share ideas, experiences, and opinions about products or services in real time, and from any geographical location. ey also enable users to share diverse perspectives, criticism and debate (Neira, 2017; López, Beltrán, Morales and Cavero, 2018; Cueva et al., 2021). In this regard, Linares (2013) points out that this exchange of opinion among customers in virtual communities inuences purchase decisions (PD), as potential customers are able to obtain information and evaluate various product options, in addition to receiving feedback and reviews from other consumers. Peña-García (2016) agrees, indicating that prior to making a purchase decision, consumers seek information about the desired product or service through social networks.On the other hand, companies also use social networks, or at least they should, in order to provide their target market with detailed, relevant and interesting information about the products or services they oer. Social networks can be used by companies as a type of high-powered megaphone to achieve a multiplier eect of their message to the market (Nielsen, 2017). In this regard, Ponce and Cordelier (2019) point out that businesses can use emotional messages on social networks to try to achieve higher visualisation and interaction from their community, while at the same time gaining feedback on their consumers’ tastes and preferences.However, this positive scenario is not achieved by all companies, as some fail to develop a marketing strategy focused on specic market segments, and instead use a generalist approach, which produces feelings of fatigue and saturation in the individuals who comprise the virtual communities (Moreira-Avilés et al., 2023).Along these lines, Osorio, Peláez and Rodríguez (2020)
210 | nº 38, pp. 207-226 | January-June of 2024Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in EcuadorISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978doxa.comunicaciónpoint out that the excessive reliance by companies on both traditional and digital media can lead to a decrease in engagement and interaction with the target audience receiving the message.Virtual communities have been growing over the last two decades, fuelled by widespread internet access in society. According to World Bank data (2020), 74% of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean use the internet, while the same report indicates that 71% of Ecuadorians use and have access to the internet. is high percentage of internet access enables the general population to have a wide choice of media outlets through digital platforms, as well as free access to information and resources, and the opportunity to work and study online (Ibujés and Franco, 2019).Increased access to this vast digital communications network, as well as the exponential proliferation of technological devices, has meant that both customers and companies are changing the way they communicate and express ideas to each other, given that this interaction is now carried out in a bi-directional way thanks to this new technology. ese new communication channels between companies and customers have opened up a wide range of options, including the joint creation and development of products that meet the latent preferences and needs of consumers. In this regard, Dávila (2018) points out that ICT allows companies to add value to their products and services, leading to a better consumer experience, while Wilches (2020) asserts that this joint development of products gives companies a competitive edge over their rivals, while generating greater satisfaction for their consumers in using their products and services.1.2. Inuencers and social networkse rapid expansion of technological devices, as well as greater availability of internet access, has led to the design of advertising and marketing strategies aimed at luring and capturing the interest of consumers. However, the inappropriate and random use of technology by organisations usually has the opposite eect on consumers or potential customers, such as uneasiness due to excessive advertising in social networks and virtual environments. Such discomfort frequently leads to disinterest by users in the companies that generate this content, which is often managed in a way that is impersonal and not adapted to people’s needs and preferences (Fransi, Ramón and Baldomar, 2013; Gómez-Nieto, 2016; Fernández-Barros 2017).In this swirl of advertising that saturates email inboxes and social networks, inuencers have appeared. As charismatic content creators intensely active in virtual communities, they have obtained signicant numbers of followers on social networks. Due to the high level of trust and recognition they have gained through content creation, inuencers have become modern day prescribers in the age of social media and the Internet. For Pérez and Clavijo (2017), inuencers are opinion leaders on a specic topic, who are constantly updating their knowledge and experience in order to produce content for their followers, with whom they have a certain amount of inuence due to the knowledge and experience they have in relation to the specic eld in which they operate. Consequently, companies analyse the socio-demographic features of those who follow inuencers in order to determine whether they are potential customers and, if so, the businesses try to recommend a product or service to them through these inuencers.In the search for information, which is the second stage of the PD process, the inuencer can become an important role model for consumers and have a direct impact on their purchase decisions, which is why companies select one or several inuencers to be ambassadors of their brands in virtual communities. However, to achieve this objective, the inuencer’s values must be
doxa.comunicación | nº 38, pp. 207-226 January-June of 2024Nivia Carolina González Marín, Rosa Virginia Guiracocha Arriciaga, Jorge Cueva Estrada and Nicolas SumbaISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978| 211in line with those of the company, as these will be reected in the advertising produced. In addition, the socio-demographic characteristics of the inuencers must be similar to those of their target audience, and the “lingo”, or type of language used, must be in consonance with that of their followers as well. ese qualities help inuencers establish a close bond with their followers, while at the same time dierentiating themselves from traditional inuencers (Díaz, 2017; Farivar and Wang, 2022). Table 1 oers a detailed classication of inuencers.Table 1. Classication of inuencersClassicationDescriptionCelebrities:ese are people who are easily recognised thanks to their high prole in the mass media, yet their prescriptive inuence is rather low, as their recommendations are seen as promotions or advertising. ey change from having a strong presence in the oine world to taking an active role in the online world. ey appear in announcements where heightened brand visibility is needed.Opinion leaders:ese individuals are journalists, professionals, or experts on a specic topic. eir main attribute is that they pro-vide high quality content to their followers. ey can also be dened as ordinary individuals who become well known through social networks due to their mastery and constant updating of knowledge on a specic topic, and they collaborate with brands by conveying a message based on expertise and credibility.Micro-inuencers:ese people are very active on social networks, with a much smaller number of followers than the previous two types, but with considerable clout with their community. ey help companies inuence people’s PD due to the high level of trust their followers place in them.Source: created by the authors based on Díaz (2017)1.3. Inuencer marketingBusinesses are increasingly aware that they need to incorporate a diversity of communication and marketing tools and strategies to achieve higher prots, and to attain a stronger position in the market. With the arrival of inuencers, together with the aim of companies to attract audiences and promote the marketing of their products and services, inuencer marketing (IM) has emerged. Castelló and Del Pino (2015) point out that this aspect of marketing is important for increasing sales through recommendations given by celebrities and famous people to their followers about a product or service, as long as these followers have characteristics and interests that are similar to those of the company’s target audience. Along the same lines, Liu (2022) points out that celebrity inuencer characteristics, such as trustworthiness, attractiveness, credibility and expertise enhance impulsive purchases of products and the intention to buy.Santamaría and Meana (2017) assert that advertising strategies based on the use of inuencers began in the late 2000s with the advent and growth of personal blogs, which allowed readers to get the opinion of other people who might have had some degree of inuence over them, thanks to their mastery of a particular topic. It should be noted that this individual may not be widely known, nor be an opinion leader, but they often gain recognition through content shared through other digital media that is trustworthy and of interest to their community.
212 | nº 38, pp. 207-226 | January-June of 2024Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in EcuadorISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978doxa.comunicaciónSuárez (2021) describes it as a type of marketing based on recommendations made by third parties, generally outside the company, related to the consumption of a product or service. In this regard, Bentley et al. (2021) note that people interact with inuencers because they oer content that is entertaining, timely and interesting. Likewise, Gutiérrez, Gassiot and Alabart (2021) point out that 80.7% of equestrian product consumers in Spain learn about new products through an inuencer, and 55.4% claim to have made a purchase as a result.For Sanmiguel (2020), IM can be classied into two large categories: 1) organic inuencer marketing, in which a micro-inuencer supports a brand in an advertising campaign but does not receive any remuneration from the company, yet both parties benet in other ways; and 2) paid inuencer marketing, a type of advertising in which companies pay for the services of the inuencers who support the brand.1.4. e fashion and beauty sectorAccording to a report by Statista (2022), there are around 300 million digital shoppers in Latin America, and this gure is expected to grow by more than 20% by 2027. However, the same report points out that the acceptance of e-commerce in the Latin American region is still lower than in other regions with emerging economies. is coincides with the ndings of López and Andrade (2020), who state that only 23% of the textile companies in Ecuador use e-commerce in their business activity.Nielsen (2021), a world leader in audience research, published the results of a study on fashion shopping and consumption habits in 2021. e study points out that most fashion purchases were made online, and that men’s fashion comprised the largest number of purchases. In addition, the report adds that inuencers have a 65% impact on women’s fashion, with the most inuential areas being clothing, perfumes, tourism and food.Concerning fashion and beauty in Ecuador, Maldonado (2014) argues that the desire of Ecuadorians to have a good appearance has led to a protable business sector, both for investors and Ecuadorian cosmetic producers, given that fashion and beauty is a sector in which consumers do not consider the cost of a product at the time of purchase. In this regard, some key data bear mentioning, which were published in a report by the Corporación Financiera Nacional CFN (2020) [national nance corporation]. e report states that 280 companies were founded in this sector in 2019, 74% of which are located in Guayas (40%) and Pichincha (34%). In addition, from 2016 to August 2020 the majority of exports in this sector were destined for the United States.us, it can be inferred from the previous section that the fashion and beauty market in Ecuador is an important part of the country’s economy. On the other hand, considering the current competitive and globalised world where companies conduct their business activity, they must look for innovative strategies to attract people’s attention or try to inuence their PD using other available means. erefore, the aim of this research is to analyse the impact of IM on customer PD in the fashion and beauty sector in Ecuador.
doxa.comunicación | nº 38, pp. 207-226 January-June of 2024Nivia Carolina González Marín, Rosa Virginia Guiracocha Arriciaga, Jorge Cueva Estrada and Nicolas SumbaISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978| 2132. Methodologyis research was conducted using an empirical and non-experimental methodology. For that reason, a survey was employed as the data collection tool. Moreover, the research method was also descriptive, which allows the object of research to be explained in detail (RO) by studying the characteristics of inuencers and the values inherent to these attributes (Heinemann, 2003; Espinoza 2018). e study is also correlational, given that the aim is to identify the relationship between two concepts or variables and to measure those associations. To do so, the following steps must be carried out: 1. e variables must be measured; 2. ey must be quantied; 3. ey must be analysed; and 4. e value of the correlation must be established (Hernández, Fernández and Baptista, 2014).In the present study, it should be noted that the methodology used was focused on cross-sectional data collection (Cvetkovic-Vega et al., 2021), which took place during February of 2023.e customers of businesses involved in the fashion and beauty industry were surveyed in Ecuador’s three largest cities: Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca. e objective was to gather the opinions of customers in these sectors with regard to the IM strategies used by the companies, which allowed the authors to observe whether the strategies had an impact on their PD. e study universe consisted of individuals in the working age population (WAP) of Ecuador which, according to the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Estadísticas y Censos [Ecuadorian Institute of Statistics and Census] (INEC, 2022), is 8.4 million Ecuadorians.As this study aims to analyse whether inuencer marketing has a persuasive impact on purchases in both the fashion and beauty markets in Ecuador, two samples have been used, so that the results obtained can be inferred separately for both sectors.Data collection was carried out in-person by a group of interviewers outside the establishments related to the sectors involved in the study. A strict selection criterion was used, whereby only those persons identied as regular customers of those establishments were included in the sample. is process was rigorously carried out until a sucient number of people had been reached for the samples, thus guaranteeing the validity of the data collected.Before conducting the interviews, pre-tests were carried out in order to assess their validity and reliability. e tool was validated by three marketing experts and subsequently tested on a sample of 30 individuals, after which the reliability of the survey was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coecient. is phase contributed signicantly to ne-tuning the survey, allowing for necessary adjustments to rene its ability to measure the variables of interest in an ecient manner.e arrangement of the samples and the reliability of the tool can be seen in Table 2.
214 | nº 38, pp. 207-226 | January-June of 2024Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in EcuadorISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978doxa.comunicaciónTable 2. Distribution of the samples Independent VariableDependent variableSample sizeSample sub-divisionIM in the beauty sectorPD process of customers in the beauty sector393WomenI prefer not to give this information(CI 95%, 5%)Cronbach’s alpha coecient 0.939Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca, at least 130 people surveyed in each city.IM in the fashion sectorPD process of customers in the fashion sector402Men andWomenI prefer not to give this information(CI 95%, 5%)Cronbach’s alpha coecient 0.929Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca, at least 130 people surveyed in each city.Source: created by the authorsTo determine whether IM strategies have a convincing impact on customer decision-making in the beauty sector in Ecuador, the rst hypothesis was the following: IM has a persuasive eect on customer PD in the beauty sector in Ecuador. To test the hypothesis, a sample of 393 people was collected. e decision was made to include only women and people who preferred not to state their gender, as this sector involves the purchase and sale of creams, masks, make-up, and make-up powder, among other cosmetic products, which are mainly purchased by women.In order to establish whether IM strategies have a convincing impact on customer decision-making in the fashion sector in Ecuador, the second hypothesis was set as follows: IM has a persuasive eect on the purchase decisions of customers in the fashion sector in Ecuador. A sample of 402 people was collected, including men, women and people who preferred not to mention their gender. It should be noted that this sector involves the purchase and sale of clothing and fashion accessories such as leather products, fabrics, and hats, among others. Table 3 below shows the operationalisation of the variables used in the study, which is in line with the review of diverse research mentioned in the previous section.
doxa.comunicación | nº 38, pp. 207-226 January-June of 2024Nivia Carolina González Marín, Rosa Virginia Guiracocha Arriciaga, Jorge Cueva Estrada and Nicolas SumbaISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978| 215 Table 3. Operationalisation of the variablesVariableSector under analysisDimensionsIndicatorsInuencer marketingFashion sectorBeauty sectorTypes of inuencers by number of followers1. Celebrity Inuencer2. Opinion leader3. Micro-inuencerInuencer characteristics4. Number of followers5. Types of followers6. Interaction/ Platforms used by inuencers7. Website8. YouTube channel9. Social mediaPD of the consumerFashion sector Beauty sectorPD process of the buyer10, 11, 12. PD according to type of inuencer13, 14, 15. PD according to the characteristics of the inuencer16, 17, 18. PD according to the platform used by the inuencerSource: created by the authors based on Díaz (2017)e data collected were compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 25.3. Results In relation to the current situation of customers in the fashion and beauty sector, Figure 1 shows the preference of people in each of these sectors when shopping.
216 | nº 38, pp. 207-226 | January-June of 2024Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in EcuadorISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978doxa.comunicaciónFigure 1. Buying preferences of fashion and beauty customers/ Platforms used by influencers 7. Website 8. YouTube channel 9. Social media PD of the consumer Fashion sector Beauty sector PD process of the buyer 10, 11, 12. PD according to type of influencer 13, 14, 15. PD according to the characteristics of the influencer 16, 17, 18. PD according to the platform used by the influencer Source: created by the authors based on Díaz (2017) The data collected were compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 25. 3. Results In relation to the current situation of customers in the fashion and beauty sector, Figure 1 shows the preference of people in each of these sectors when shopping. Figure 1. Buying preferences of fashion and beauty customers Source: created by the authors Regarding the factors that customers in both sectors believe exert an influence on their purchasing behaviour, Figure 2 shows the distribution of the results. 62,09%75,12%37,91%24,88%BeautyFashionIn-personOnlineSource: created by the authorsRegarding the factors that customers in both sectors believe exert an inuence on their purchasing behaviour, Figure 2 shows the distribution of the results.Figure 2. Factors that inuence the buying behaviour of Fashion and Beauty customersFigure 2. Factors that influence the buying behaviour of Fashion and Beauty customers Source: created by the authors To confirm the first hypothesis, each of the responses of the beauty customers in the IM and PD dimensions were aggregated. In order to interpret the data, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test (PNKS) was applied, and it was found that the data did not achieve normality. Consequently, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient (SR CC) was employed to verify the existence of a linear relationship between the variables. Table 4. Details of the correlation between the dimensions: IM and PD in the beauty sector. Table 4. Spearman's Rho calculations: IM and PD in the Beauty (B) sector Type_Influencer_B PDB_Type_Influencer Intensity Type_Influencer_B SRCC 1.000 .654** Average positive correlation Characteristics_Influencer_B PDB_Characteristics_Influencer Characteristics_Influencer_B SRCC 1.000 .613** Average positive correlation Platform_Influencer_B PDB_Platform_Influencer Platform_Influencer_B SRCC 1.000 .747** Average positive correlation N 393 **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral) Source: created by the authors ϰ͕ϱϴйϯϮ͕ϱϳйϭϳ͕Ϭϱйϲ͕ϯϲйϵ͕ϲϳйϭϰ͕ϳϲйϭϱ͕ϬϭйϭйϮϱйϭϭйϯϳйϲйϭϴйϮй^ƵŝƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŝŵĂŐĞ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ŽĨ ƐĂůĞ YƵĂůŝƚLJWĞƌƐŽŶ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ďƌĂŶĚWƌŝĐĞ!ƌĂŶĚ ƉƌĞƐƚŝŐĞ#ĚǀĞƌƚŝƐŝŶŐZĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ ĨƌŽŵ ĨĂŵŝůLJ Žƌ ĨƌŝĞŶĚƐ&ĂƐŚŝŽŶ!ĞĂƵƚLJSource: created by the authors
doxa.comunicación | nº 38, pp. 207-226 January-June of 2024Nivia Carolina González Marín, Rosa Virginia Guiracocha Arriciaga, Jorge Cueva Estrada and Nicolas SumbaISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978| 217To conrm the rst hypothesis, each of the responses of the beauty customers in the IM and PD dimensions were aggregated. In order to interpret the data, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test (PNKS) was applied, and it was found that the data did not achieve normality. Consequently, Spearman’s Rho correlation coecient (SR CC) was employed to verify the existence of a linear relationship between the variables. Table 4. Details of the correlation between the dimensions: IM and PD in the beauty sector.Table 4. Spearman’s Rho calculations: IM and PD in the Beauty (B) sectorType_Inuencer_BPDB_Type_InuencerIntensityType_Inuencer_BSRCC1.000.654**Average positive correlationCharacteristics_Inuencer_BPDB_Characteristics_InuencerCharacteristics_Inuencer_BSRCC1.000.613**Average positive correlationPlatform_Inuencer_BPDB_Platform_InuencerPlatform_Inuencer_BSRCC1.000.747**Average positive correlationN393**Correlation is signicant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)Source: created by the authorsTo get an overview of the relationship between IM and PD strategies of customers in the beauty sector, a scatter diagram was made (see Figure 3. Subsequently, the SRCC was applied to obtain a numerical result (see Table 5).
218 | nº 38, pp. 207-226 | January-June of 2024Inuencer marketing and its impact on customer purchase decisions in the fashion and beauty sector in EcuadorISSN: 1696-019X / e-ISSN: 2386-3978doxa.comunicaciónTable 5. Correlation of IM (Sum_IMB) and PD (Sum_PDB) of beauty sector customers Sum_IMBSum_PDBSum_MIBSRCC1.000.738** Average positive correlationP-value (bilateral).000N393393Sum_PDBSRCC.738** Average positive correlation1.000P-value (bilateral) .000N393393**Correlation is signicant at the 0.01 level (bilateral) Source: created by the authorsFigure 3. Scatter diagram of IM (Sum_IMB) and PD (Sum_PDB) of beauty sector customers