Redes sociales y protesta política: Un análisis del rol moderador del estatus socioeconómico y la pertenencia a grupos políticos

Autores/as

Palabras clave:

participación política, redes sociales, estatus socioeconómico, protesta política, pertenencia a grupos políticos

Resumen

En esta investigación se examina la asociación entre el uso político de redes sociales y la participación en actividades de protesta política a nivel individual, así como el efecto moderador que sobre esta relación ejercen el estatus socioeconómico y la pertenencia a grupos políticos. Para probar las hipótesis planteadas se emplearon datos de 1520 encuestas aplicadas en Quito (Ecuador) en el año 2018. Los principales resultados son los siguientes: i) el uso de redes sociales (Facebook, Twitter) para el consumo de información y la expresión política influye positivamente sobre el comportamiento de protesta; ii) este efecto movilizador se intensifica en las personas de menor nivel socioeconómico y con mayor grado de participación en agrupaciones políticas offline; iii) la fuerza de las relaciones de moderación descritas se modifica dependiendo de la plataforma digital que se emplee políticamente. Finalmente se discuten las implicaciones de los hallazgos en torno al debate sobre redes sociales, comunicación política y democracia.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Marcos Rafael Zumárraga-Espinosa, Universidad Politécnica Salesiana (UPS), Ecuador

Magíster en Gestión Pública por el Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales (IAEN – Ecuador) y Economista por la Universidad Central del Ecuador (UCE). Docente investigador de la Universidad Politécnica Salesiana,  Ecuador (UPS). Miembro del Grupo de Investigaciones Psicosociales (GIPS-UPS) y del Grupo de Innovación Educativa (GIE-UPS) de Orientación Vocacional y Profesional. Director del proyecto de investigación “Participación política online y offline: relaciones y variables psicosociales” en el cual se enmarca el articulo presentado. Sus principales intereses de investigación son: comportamientos políticos offline y online, rendimiento académico y deserción universitaria, conductas ecológicas y economía conductual.

 

 

Citas

Anduiza, E., Cristancho, C. y Sabucedo, J. (2014). Mobilization through online social networks: the political protest of the indignados in Spain. Information, Communication & Society, 17(6), 750-764. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.808360

Anduiza, E., Gallego, A. y Cantijoch, M. (2010). Online political participation in Spain: the impact of traditional and Internet resources. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7(4), 356-368. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681003791891

Basabe-Serrano, S. y Martínez, J. (2014). Ecuador: Cada vez menos democracia, cada vez más autoritarismo... con elecciones. Revista de ciencia política, 34(1), 145-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-090X2014000100007

Baum, M. (2003). Soft news goes to war: Public opinion and American foreign policy in the new media age. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Best, S. y Krueger, B. (2005). Analyzing the representativeness of Internet political participation. Political Behavior, 27(2), 183-216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-005-3242-y

Bode, L. y Dalrymple, K. (2016). Politics in 140 characters or less: Campaign communication, network interaction, and political participation on Twitter. Journal of Political Marketing, 15(4), 311-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2014.959686

Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: A meta-analysis of current research. Information, communication & society 18(5): 524-538. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1008542

Boyle, M. P. y Schmierbach, M. (2009). Media use and protest: The role of mainstream and alternative media use in predicting traditional and protest participation. Communication Quarterly, 57(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463370802662424

Brady, H., Verba, S. y Schlozman, K. (1995). Beyond SES: A resource model of political participation. American political science review, 89(2), 271-294. https://doi.org/10.2307/2082425

Calenda, D. y Meijer, A. (2009). Young people, the Internet and political participation: findings of a web survey in Italy, Spain and The Netherlands. Information, Communication & Society, 12(6), 879-898. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691180802158508

Campbell, S. y Kwak, N. (2011). Political involvement in “mobilized” society: The interactive relationships among mobile communication, network characteristics, and political participation. Journal of Communication, 61(6), 1005-1024. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01601.x

Carlisle, J. y Patton, R. (2013). Is social media changing how we understand political engagement? An analysis of Facebook and the 2008 presidential election. Political Research Quarterly, 66(4), 883-895. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912913482758

Carty, V. (2010). New information communication technologies and grassroots mobilization. Information, Communication & Society, 13(2), 155-173. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691180902915658

Chan, M. (2016). Social network sites and political engagement: Exploring the impact of Facebook connections and uses on political protest and participation. Mass communication and society, 19(4), 430-451. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2016.1161803

Cho, J., Shah, D., McLeod, J., McLeod, D., Scholl, R. y Gotlieb, M. (2009). Campaigns, reflection, and deliberation: Advancing an OSROR model of communication effects. Communication Theory, 19(1), 66-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2008.01333.x

Choi, J. (2016). Differential use, differential effects: Investigating the roles of different modes of news use in promoting political participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 21(6), 436-450. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12176

Conroy, M., Feezell, J. y Guerrero, M. (2012). Facebook and political engagement: A study of online political group membership and offline political engagement. Computers in Human behavior, 28(5), 1535-1546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.03.012

Cristancho, C. y Anduiza, E. (2013). Connective Action in European Mass Protest. Social Media and Political Participation Conference, La Pietra Dialogues, NYU. http://www.lapietradialogues.org/area/pubblicazioni/doc000078.pdf

Dalton, R. (2008). Citizenship norms and the expansion of political participation. Political studies, 56(1), 76-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2007.00718.x

Dalton, R., Van Sickle, A. y Weldon, S. (2010). The individual–institutional nexus of protest behavior. British Journal of Political Science 40(1): 51-73. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000712340999038X

Dawson, J. (2014). Moderation in management research: What, why, when, and how. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-013-9308-7

DiGrazia, J. (2014). Individual protest participation in the United States: Conventional and unconventional activism. Social Science Quarterly, 95(1), 111-131. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12048

Dubrow, J., Slomczynski, K. y Tomescu-Dubrow, I. (2008). Effects of democracy and inequality on soft political protest in Europe: exploring the European social survey data. International Journal of Sociology, 38(3), 36-51. https://doi.org/10.2753/IJS0020-7659380302

Ekman, J. y Amnå, E. (2012). Political participation and civic engagement: Towards a new typology. Human affairs, 22(3), 283-300. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13374-012-0024-1

Enjolras, B., Steen-Johnsen, K. y Wollebæk, D. (2013). Social media and mobilization to offline demonstrations: Transcending participatory divides?. New media & society, 15(6), 890-908. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812462844

Eveland, W. (2001). The cognitive mediation model of learning from the news: Evidence from nonelection, off-year election, and presidential election contexts. Communication Research, 28(5), 571-601. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365001028005001

Eveland, W. (2004). The effect of political discussion in producing informed citizens: The roles of information, motivation, and elaboration. Political Communication, 21(2), 177-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584600490443877

Gibson, R. (2015). Party change, social media and the rise of ‘citizen-initiated’campaigning. Party politics, 21(2), 183-197. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068812472575

Gil de Zúñiga, H., Ardèvol-Abreu, A. y Casero-Ripollés, A. (2019). WhatsApp political discussion, conventional participation and activism: exploring direct, indirect and generational effects. Information, Communication & Society, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2019.1642933

Gil de Zúñiga, H., Jung, N. y Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals' social capital, civic engagement and political participation. Journal of computer-mediated communication, 17(3), 319-336. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2012.01574.x

Gil de Zúñiga, H., Molyneux, L. y Zheng, P. (2014). Social media, political expression, and political participation: Panel analysis of lagged and concurrent relationships. Journal of Communication, 64(4), 612-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12103

Gil de Zúñiga, H., Veenstra, A., Vraga, E. y Shah, D. (2010). Digital democracy: Reimagining pathways to political participation. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7(1), 36-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331680903316742

Gustafsson, N. (2012). The subtle nature of Facebook politics: Swedish social network site users and political participation. New Media & Society, 14(7), 1111-1127. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812439551

Hardy, B. y Scheufele, D. (2005). Examining differential gains from Internet use: Comparing the moderating role of talk and online interactions. Journal of Communication, 55(1), 71-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2005.tb02659.x

Heiss, R. y Matthes, J. (2016). Mobilizing for Some: The Effects of Politicians’ Participatory Facebook Posts on Young People’s Political Efficacy. Journal of Media Psychology, 28 (3), 123-135. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1105/a000199

Ji, Y., Zhou, Y. y Kim, S. (2017). A moderated mediation model of political collective action in Hong Kong: examining the roles of social media consumption and social identity. Asian Journal of Communication, 27(5), 497-516. https://doi.org/10.1080/01292986.2017.1336777

Jung, N., Kim, Y. y Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2011). The mediating role of knowledge and efficacy in the effects of communication on political participation. Mass Communication and Society, 14(4), 407-430. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2010.496135

Kaye, B. y Johnson, T. (2002). Online and in the know: Uses and gratifications of the web for political information. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 46(1), 54-71. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4601_4

Kim, Y., Chen, H. T. y Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2013). Stumbling upon news on the Internet: Effects of incidental news exposure and relative entertainment use on political engagement. Computers in human behavior, 29(6), 2607-2614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.005

Kim, Y., Hsu, S. y Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2013). Influence of social media use on discussion network heterogeneity and civic engagement: The moderating role of personality traits. Journal of Communication, 63(3), 498-516. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12034

Krueger, B. (2006). A comparison of conventional and Internet political mobilization. American Politics Research, 34(6), 759-776. https://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X06290911

Krueger, B. (2002). Assessing the potential of Internet political participation in the United States: A resource approach. American Politics Research, 30(5), 476-498. https://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X02030005002

Lee, F., Chen, H. T. y Chan, M. (2017). Social media use and university students’ participation in a large-scale protest campaign: The case of Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement. Telematics and Informatics, 34(2), 457-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2016.08.005

Lee, S. (2019). Connecting social media use with gaps in knowledge and participation in a protest context: the case of candle light vigil in South Korea. Asian Journal of Communication, 29(2), 111-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/01292986.2018.1549264

Lemert, J. B. (1981). Does mass communication change public opinion after all? A new approach to effects analysis. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.

Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Altoè, G., Scacchi, L., Perkins, D., Zukauskiene, R. y Santinello, M. (2015). Can Facebook informational use foster adolescent civic engagement?. American Journal of Community Psychology, 55(3-4), 444-454. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-015-9723-1

Macafee, T. y De Simone, J.J. (2012). Killing the bill online? Pathways to young people's protest engagement via social media. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(11), 579-584. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0153

Meléndez, C. y Moncagatta, P. (2017). Ecuador: Una década de correísmo. Revista de ciencia política, 37(2), 413-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0718-090x2017000200413

Micó, J.L y Casero-Ripollés, A. (2014). Political activism online: organization and media relations in the case of 15M in Spain. Information, Communication & Society, 17(7), 858-871. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.830634

Morris, D. y Morris, J. (2013). Digital inequality and participation in the political process: Real or imagined?. Social Science Computer Review, 31(5), 589-600. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439313489259

Mutz, D. (2002). Cross-cutting social networks: Testing democratic theory in practice. American Political Science Review, 96(1), 111-126. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055402004264

Nam, T. (2012). Dual effects of the internet on political activism: Reinforcing and mobilizing. Government Information Quarterly, 29, S90-S97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2011.08.010

Niemi, R., Craig, S. y Mattei, F. (1991). Measuring internal political efficacy in the 1988 National Election Study. American Political Science Review, 85(4), 1407-1413. https://doi.org/10.2307/1963953

Norris, P., Walgrave, S. y Van Aelst, P. (2005). Who demonstrates? Antistate rebels, conventional participants, or everyone?. Comparative politics, 37(2), 189-205.

Oser, J., Hooghe, M. y Marien, S. (2013). Is online participation distinct from offline participation? A latent class analysis of participation types and their stratification. Political Research Quarterly, 66(1), 91-101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912912436695

Pingree, R. (2007). How messages affect their senders: A more general model of message effects and implications for deliberation. Communication Theory, 17(4), 439-461. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2007.00306.x

Preacher, K., Curran, P. y Bauer, D. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of educational and behavioral statistics, 31(4), 437-448. https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986031004437

Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Rojas, H. y Puig-i-Abril, E. (2009). Mobilizers mobilized: Information, expression, mobilization and participation in the digital age. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(4), 902-927. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01475.x

Scherman, A., Arriagada, A. y Valenzuela, S. (2015). Student and environmental protests in Chile: The role of social media. Politics, 35(2), 151-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9256.12072

Schlozman, K., Verba, S. y Brady, H. (2010). Weapon of the strong? Participatory inequality and the Internet. Perspectives on Politics, 8(2), 487-509. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592710001210

Schussman, A. y Soule, S. (2005). Process and protest: Accounting for individual protest participation. Social forces, 84(2), 1083-1108. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2006.0034

Scheufele, D. y Nisbet, M. (2002). Being a citizen online: New opportunities and dead ends. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 7(3), 55-75. https://doi.org/10.1177/1081180X0200700304

Shah, D., Cho, J., Eveland, W. y Kwak, N. (2005). Information and expression in a digital age: Modeling Internet effects on civic participation. Communication research, 32(5), 531-565. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650205279209

Shah, D., Cho, J., Nah, S., Gotlieb, M., Hwang, H., Lee, N.J., Scholl, R. y McLeod. D. (2007). Campaign ads, online messaging, and participation: Extending the communication mediation model. Journal of communication, 57(4), 676-703. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2007.00363.x

Tang, G. y Lee, F. (2013). Facebook use and political participation: The impact of exposure to shared political information, connections with public political actors, and network structural heterogeneity. Social Science Computer Review, 31(6), 763-773. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439313490625

Theocharis, Y., Lowe, W., Van Deth, J. y García-Albacete, G. (2015). Using Twitter to mobilize protest action: online mobilization patterns and action repertoires in the Occupy Wall Street, Indignados, and Aganaktismenoi movements. Information, Communication & Society, 18(2), 202-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2014.948035

Valenzuela, S. (2013). Unpacking the use of social media for protest behavior: The roles of information, opinion expression, and activism. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7), 920-942. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213479375

Valenzuela, S., Arriagada, A. y Scherman, A. (2012). The social media basis of youth protest behavior: The case of Chile. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 299-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01635.x

Valenzuela, S., Park, N. y Kee, K. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site?: Facebook use and college students' life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of computer-mediated communication 14(4): 875-901. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01474.x

Valenzuela, S., Somma, N., Scherman, A. y Arriagada, A. (2016). Social media in Latin America: deepening or bridging gaps in protest participation?. Online Information Review, 40(5), 695-711.

Valeriani, A. y Vaccari, C. (2016). Accidental exposure to politics on social media as online participation equalizer in Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. New Media & Society, 18(9), 1857-1874. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815616223

Verba, S., Schlozman, K. y Brady, H. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. London: Harvard University Press.

Wang, S.I. (2007). Political use of the Internet, political attitudes and political participation. Asian Journal of Communication, 17(4), 381-395. https://doi.org/10.1080/01292980701636993

Winneg, K. (2009). Online political participation in the 2008 US presidential election: Mobilizing or reinforcing?. Publicly accessible Penn Dissertations 72.

Wright, S. y Street, J. (2007). Democracy, deliberation and design: the case of online discussion forums. New media & society, 9(5), 849-869. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444807081230

Xenos, M., Vromen, A. y Loader, B. (2014). The great equalizer? Patterns of social media use and youth political engagement in three advanced democracies. Information, Communication & Society, 17(2), 151-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.871318

Yamamoto, M., Kushin, M. y Dalisay, F. (2015). Social media and mobiles as political mobilization forces for young adults: Examining the moderating role of online political expression in political participation.

New Media & Society, 17(6), 880-898. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444813518390

Yang, H. y DeHart, J. (2016). Social media use and online political participation among college students during the US election 2012. Social Media+ Society, 2(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115623802

Yoo, S.W. y Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2019). The role of heterogeneous political discussion and partisanship on the effects of incidental news exposure online. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2018.1561346

Yoo, S.W. y Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2014). Connecting blog, Twitter and Facebook use with gaps in knowledge and participation. Communication & Society, 27 (4), 33-48.

Zhang, W. y Chia, S. (2006). The effects of mass media use and social capital on civic and political participation. Communication Studies, 57(3), 277-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510970600666974

Zumárraga-Espinosa, M. (2020). Aportes metodológicos para la medición del sentido de eficacia politica: Evidencia empírica de Quito-Ecuador. Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales, (45), 113-142. https://doi.org/10.5944/empiria.45.2020.26306

Zumárraga-Espinosa, M., Carofilis-Cedeño, C. y Reyes-Valenzuela, C. (2017). El efecto movilizador de las emociones sobre la participación política online en la segunda vuelta de las elecciones presidenciales en Ecuador 2017. Revista Democracias, 5, 25-62.

Zumárraga-Espinosa, M., Reyes-Valenzuela, C. y Carofilis-Cedeño, C. (2017). ¿Verdad o ficción? El uso político de las redes sociales en la participación política offline en las elecciones presidenciales en Ecuador. Análisis político, 30(91), 130-145. https://doi.org/10.15446/anpol.v30n91.70268

Publicado

11-06-2020

Cómo citar

Zumárraga-Espinosa, M. R. (2020). Redes sociales y protesta política: Un análisis del rol moderador del estatus socioeconómico y la pertenencia a grupos políticos. Doxa Comunicación. Revista Interdisciplinar De Estudios De Comunicación Y Ciencias Sociales, (30), 55–77. Recuperado a partir de https://revistascientificas.uspceu.com/doxacomunicacion/article/view/500

Número

Sección

Miscelánea de artículos y ensayos científicos